Notes on Method Concerning This Website
Geographical names: For towns, I try to use the form that is found in that country today, e.g. Reims, Milano, Zaragoza. The names of countries, however, are given in their English form. I also often use the English noun for Rome, when it is being considered, not as a city, but more as a concept: e.g. Greece and Rome, Rome as a new ‘Babylon’.
Personal names: For medieval figures from Western Europe, I try to use the Latin name, e.g. Joachim, Eriugena, Bernardus Silvestris; but if the figure is already well-known under a modernised name, I try to use the form (usually French in this history) current in the appropriate country, e.g. Bernard de Clairvaux and Garnier de Rochefort. Arabic names are left in their transliterated Arabic form if they are being considered in an Islamic context, but given their Latin form if it is their work translated into Latin that is important; e.g. I mention Ibn Sīnā’s influence on Ibn Tufayl, but Avicenna’s influence on Gundissalinus.
Dates: All dates, including those of Islamic events, are given according to the Gregorian calendar (i.e. A.D. / C.E., the Common or Christian Era), unless otherwise stated.
Arabic transliterations: As I have no knowledge of Arabic, I have had to copy the spellings of the different translators to whom I am indebted for information. If the result is a plethora of inconsistencies and errors, I can only ask to be forgiven.
In quotations: Anything in square brackets is an editorial addition. If I have put 3 dots in square brackets […], it means that I have cut out part of a quotation, to shorten it.
Qur’ān quotations: I follow the A.J.Arberry (Oxford World’s Classics) interpretation of 1964, as published in paperback in 1983.
Bible quotations: I have used the Authorised Version (A.V.) where possible, because its translation is familiar. If the quotation in the Latin Vulgate Bible is markedly different from the A.V., I have translated it as literally as possible from the Latin. I have used common abbreviations for references to books of the Bible, e.g. Ps. for Psalms, Cor. for Corinthians etc.
Translations into English: If I am using a translation which has been made for publication, I assume that it is correct and acceptable to all readers. If I have had to translate something myself, or if I need to quote a text that has been translated into a language other than English (e.g. an Arabic text translated into French), I put the quotation, in a footnote, in the language from which I have had to translate it.
Footnotes: I apologise that the notes have to be all together at the end of each piece. For the way to find bibliographical information from the footnotes, please see below. To eliminate any confusion in references, I often add (XI) after the number 11.
Abbreviations: I think the abbreviations used are common:
A.H.D.L.M.A. = Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Age;
A.V. = Authorised Version, the English Bible most commonly quoted;
attrib. = usually attributed to;
bibliog. = bibliography;
BN lat. = Bibliothèque Nationale fonds latin;
chap. = chapter;
col. = column;
d. = died;
ed. = editor, edition or edited by;
Eng. = English;
fasc. = fascicle or fascicule, i.e. a part of a volume, published separately;
Fr. = French;
ibid. = the same work as before;
MS = manuscript;
n. = footnote or explanatory note;
n.d. = it has no date;
no. = number;
op.cit. = in a work recently referred to (probably on the same page);
passim = throughout;
PG = Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca (1857-1912) 162 vols;
PL = Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Latina (1844-1864) 221 vols;
pp. = pages;
R.H.E. = Revue d’Histoire Ecclésiastique;
ser. = series;
Sp. = Spanish;
tr. or transl. = translator, translation or translated by;
vol. = volume.
Bibliographical references: Full references are not given in the footnotes. Works are there referred to by the name of the author (and if necessary the first words of the title), plus a reference to the full details in the bibliographies.
For Bibliography A (medieval texts concerning the Amalricians) and Bibliography S (other original sources) the reference is to a numbered entry. For example, if the author or work referred to in the note has (S.22) after it, it will be found by going to the home page, clicking on Bibliography S, and scrolling down to the number 22.
The reference is to a numbered section in the case of Bibliography B (which includes all the secondary sources: i.e. material published in modern times). This huge bibliography is divided into sections by subject matter. For example, a reference to B.4 ( David de Dinant) means the whole list of entries on David, which includes the work that has been referenced. To find a reference in B.4, for example, click on Bibliography B, then on the section title, in this case Illuminist and Pantheist Heresy, for B.1-6, and scroll through to B.4., and finally scroll through B.4 to find the author and/or title given in the footnote.