Bibliography B: Dualist influences


RUNCIMAN, S. : The Medieval Manichee, a Study of the Christian Dualist Heresy (Cambridge 1947 + 1955).

A brilliant historical synthesis of dualist traditions from Gnostics, Marcionites and Manichaeans onwards (with an enlarged bibliography in the 1955 edition). 

SŐDERBERG, Hans : La Religion des Cathares, étude sur le gnosticisme de la basse antiquité et du moyen âge (Uppsala 1949).

A comprehensive analysis of the various dualist doctrines of Gnosticism, studied as a background for Western Catharism.  An erudite work with an extensive bibliography.

LOOS, Milan (tr. LEWITOVA, Iris) : Dualist Heresy in the Middle Ages (Praha & den Haag 1974).

From Paulicians in the 8th century to the end of the Bosnian church in the 15th.

STOYANOU, Yuri : The Hidden Tradition in Europe: the secret history of medieval Christian heresy (London 1994).

From Zoroastrianism to Catharism (with maps and bibliography).



GRÉGOIRE, Henri : Précisions géographiques et chronologiques sur les Pauliciens ;

IN : Académie royale de Belgique : Bulletin de la classe des lettres et des sciences morales et politiques, série 5, vol.33 (Bruxelles 1947) pp.289-324.

This clarifies a few difficulties about Paulician history.  It contains 2 useful appendices: a chronology of Paulician history from 662-872 and a French translation of Peter of Sicily’s history, chaps.23-43.

LOOS, M. : Deux contributions à l’histoire des pauliciens :

I. A propos des sources grecques reflétant des pauliciens ;

IN : Byzantinoslavica, vol.17 (Praha 1956) pp.19-57.

II. Origine du nom des pauliciens ;

IN : Byzantinoslavica, vol.18 (Praha 1957) pp.202-217.

Information on the sources in the first part.  The second part is a brave attempt to sort out all the possible Pauls who could have contributed to the name of the heresy.

GARSOÏAN, Nina G. : The Paulician Heresy: A Study of the Origin and Development of Paulicianism in Armenia and the Eastern Provinces of the Byzantine Empire (Columbia University Publications in Near and Middle East Studies, ser.A, no.6) (den Haag 1967).

This study tries to sort out all the different developments and doctrines of the various Paulician and Thonraki traditions (with bibliography and map).

NERSESSIAN, Vrej : The Tondrakian Movement: religious movements in the Armenian church from the 4th to the 10th centuries (London 1987).

This relates the movement to its Armenian socio-political background and deals with its links to, and confusion with, the Paulicians ( with map and bibliography).



PUECH, Henri-Charles & VAILLANT, André : Le Traité contre les Bogomiles de Cosmas le prêtre (Travaux publiés par l’Institut d’Etudes Slaves, no.21) (Paris 1945).

A.Vaillant’s French translation of Cosmas’ treatise, with literary and historical commentary, plus H.C.Puech’s study of Bogomilism.

OBOLENSKY, Dmitri : The Bogomils, a study in Balkan Neo-Manichaeism (Cambridge 1948).

This traces the development of both the Paulician and the Bogomil movements, incorporating all the relevant background information for those, like me, who know little about Byzantine history (with a large bibliography).

BACKVIS, Claude : Un témoignage bulgare du Xe siècle sur les Bogomiles : le « Slovo » de Cosmas le Prêtre ;

IN : Université Libre de Bruxelles : Annuaire de l’Institut de Philologie et d’Histoire Orientales et Slaves, vol.16 (Bruxelles 1961-62).

On the social as well as religious importance of the Bogomils in Bulgaria.

LOOS, Milan : La question de l’origine du bogomilisme (Bulgarie ou Byzance ?) ;

IN : Actes du Premier Congrès International des Etudes Balkaniques et Sud-Est Européennes, vol.3 (Sofia 1969) pp.265-270.

The possibility of Paulician contacts with the early Bogomils.

HAMILTON, Bernard : The Origins of the Dualist Church of Drugunthia;

IN : Eastern Churches Review, vol.5 (Oxford 1973) pp.115-124.

He puts forward the thesis that the absolute dualist church was due to a Greek schism from the original Bogomil movement in the 12th century.



OECONOMOS, Lysimaque : la vie religieuse dans l’empire byzantin au temps des Comnènes et des Anges (Paris 1918).

It covers monasticism, church government, heresy etc. (with bibliography).

RENAULD, Emile : Une traduction française du ‘Peri Energeias Daemonum’ de Michel Psellos ;

IN : Revue des Etudes Grecques, vol.33 (Paris 1920) pp.56-95.

A 16th-century French translation, with a study of demonic influences and a study of the Euchite heresy.

DAWES, Elizabeth A.S. (tr.) : The Alexiad of the Princess Anna Comnena, being the history of the reign of her father, Alexius I, Emperor of the Romans, 1081-1118 A.D. (London 1967, but first published in 1928).

Translation and index only; no notes or introduction.

HAUSHEER, I : L’erreur fondamentale et la logique du messalianisme ;

IN : Orientalia Christiana Periodica, vol.1 (Roma 1935) pp.328-360.

This shows a perceptive understanding of their doctrine, even though the writer can only see in it heresy and error.

LEIB, Bernard (éd. & tr.) : ANNE COMNÈNE : Alexiade : Règne de l’Empereur Alexis I Comnène (1081-1118) (Paris 1937-1945) 3 vols.

The text and the French translation: vol.1: books 1-4, with a very full introduction to the work; vol.2 : books 5-10; vol.3 : books 11-15 and bibliography.

GOUILLARD, Jean : L’hérésie dans l’empire byzantin des origines au XIIe siècle ;

IN : Travaux et mémoires (du centre de recherche d’histoire et civilisation byzantines) vol.1 (Paris 1965) pp.299-324.

Heresy in the Byzantine Empire from the 4th – 12th centuries: a patchy overall view of a misty landscape.

MORRIS, Rosemary : Monks and laymen in Byzantium, 843-1118 (Cambridge 1995).

The organisational, legal, social and political details of Byzantine monasticism in this period (with maps and bibliography).

ANGOLD, Richard : Church and Society in Byzantium under the Comneni, 1081-1261 (2nd edition: Cambridge 2000).

A very full religious and political history of the period (with bibliography).



DONDAINE, Antoine : La hiérarchie cathare en Italie ;

IN : Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum, vol.19 (Roma 1949) pp.280-312, & vol.20 (Roma 1950) pp.234-324.

Bogomil-Cathar contacts, Italian Catharism, and the full Latin texts on which his study of early Italian Catharism is based.

THOUZELLIER, Christine : Hérésie et Croisade au XIIe siècle ;

IN : R.H.E. vol.49 (Louvain 1954) pp.855-872.

On the early contacts between Bogomils and Cathars.

HAMILTON, Bernard : Wisdom from the East: the reception by the Cathars of Eastern dualist texts;

IN : BILLER, Peter & HUDSON, Anne (ed.) : Heresy and Literacy 1000-1530 (Cambridge studies in medieval literature no.23) (Cambridge 1994) pp.38-60.

A study of Bogomil and Cathar texts.  There is also a question about re-dating the first contacts to the time of the First Crusade.



de LACGER, Louis : L’Albigeois pendant la crise de l’albigéisme : l’épiscopat de Guilhem Peire, 1185-1227 ;

IN : R.H.E. vol.29 (Louvain 1933) pp.272-315, pp.586-633 & pp.849-904.

Part 1: the Catholic Bishop of Albi, Guilhem Peire, and his diocese.  Part 2: his ecclesiastical work.  Part 3: his political work.  Part 1 also considers the term ‘Albigensian,’ and the authenticity of the council of Saint-Félix.

THOUZELLIER, Christine : Catharisme et valdéisme en Languedoc à la fin du XIIe et au début du XIIIe siècles.  Politique pontificale.  Controverses. (2e édition Louvain & Paris 1969).

This is a monumental work on the development of the Catharist and Waldensian movements up to 1220, their struggles with Catholics and with each other, plus a detailed literary and theological analysis of Durand’s Liber contra Manichaeos (with a long bibliography).

GRIFFE, Élie : Les débuts de l’aventure cathare en Languedoc, 1140-1190 (Paris 1969)  & Le Languedoc cathare de 1190 à 1210  (Paris 1971).

He tells the story well, but accepts that all unspecified heresy in the area after the 1140s is Catharist.  Both books have useful maps.

WAKEFIELD, Walter L. : Heresy, Crusade and Inquisition in Southern France, 1100-1250 (London 1974).

A compact history, plus English translations of extracts from some of the sources, plus a full bibliography.



GUÉBIN, Pascal & LYON, Ernest : Petri Vallium Sarnii Monachi Hystoria Albigensis (Société de l’Histoire de France, nos. 412, 422 & 442) 3 vols. (Paris 1926-1939).

Part 1 contains the Latin text up to the year 1212; part 2 the Latin text up to 1218; part 3 the Old French translation: plus a study of Pierre des Vaux-de-Cernay and his work.

DONDAINE, Antoine : Durand de Huesca et la polémique anti-cathare;

IN : Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum, vol.29 (Roma 1959) pp.228-276.

He considers the anti-Cathar polemics by Durand and Ermengaud.

THOUZELLIER, Christine : Une somme anti-cathare : le « Liber contra Manicheos »  de Durand de Huesca (Spicilegium Sacrum Lovaniense no.32) (Louvain 1964).

The Latin text, with a textual introduction, and a bibliography.

DUVERNOY, Jean (éd. & tr.) : GUILLAUME de PUYLAURENS : Chronique 1203-1275 : Chronica Magistri Guillelmi de Podio Laurentii (Paris 1976).

The Latin text and French translation of this chronicle, with an introduction.



DONDAINE, Antoine : Les actes du concile albigeois de Saint-Félix-de-Caraman ;

IN : Studi e testi, vol.125 (= Miscellanea G. MERCATI, vol.5) (Vatican 1946) pp.324-355.

The Latin text, a commentary and reasons for accepting its authenticity.

DOSSAT, Yves : Remarques sur un prétendu évêque cathare du Val d’Aran en 1167 ;

IN : Bulletin philologique et historique du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques, Année 1955-56, (Paris 1957) pp.339-347.

Reasons for thinking the text is a forgery.

ŠANJEK Franjo : Le rassemblement hérétique de Saint-Félix-de-Caraman (1167) et les églises cathares au XIIe siècle ;

IN : R.H.E. vol.67 (Louvain 1972) pp.767-799.

He argues for its authenticity, and tries to locate the different Bogomil churches which are mentioned.

MOORE, R.I. : Nicétas, émissaire de Dragovitch, a-t-il traversé les Alpes ?

IN : Annales de Midi, vol.85 (Toulouse 1973) pp.85-90.

This doubts the authenticity of the text about the Council at Saint-Félix.

HAMILTON, Bernard : The Cathar Council of Saint-Félix reconsidered;

IN : Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum, vol.48 (Roma 1978) pp.23-53.

He believes that the text is authentic but needs correcting.  So many dates and mistakes are corrected (to show that there was a genuine document originally) that I for one fail to see the point in constructing assumptions based on this flawed text.

JIMENEZ, Pilar : Relire la charte de Niquinta;

IN : Heresis, vol.22, pp.1-26, & vol.23, pp.1-28 (Carcassonne juin & déc.1994).

This re-states all the old problems, plus a new one (whether Cathars could take multiple ‘consolamenta’ without an overwhelming justification), and dismisses them.

ZERNER, Monique (ed): L’Histoire du Catharisme en Discussion: Le ‘Concile’ de Saint-Felix (1167) (Collection du Centre d’Etudes Medievales de Nice, vol.3) (Nice 2001).

This contains an exhaustive discussion of the difficulties, and concludes that it cannot be an authentic record of an 1167 meeting; but doubts that the 17th-century antiquarian, Besse, made it up from scratch.  I hope this will put an end to its appearance as a key historical event in the early history of Catharism in the Languedoc.

ZBIRAL, David : La Charte de Niquinta et les recits sur les commencements des eglises cathares en Italie et dans le Midi;

IN : Heresis, vol.44-45 (Carcassonne 2006) pp.135-162.

He suggests that Besse based his document upon a thirteenth-century text, which combined a foundation myth with an organisational restructuring, maybe in the 1220s.



GUIRAUD, Jean : Le ‘Consolamentum’ cathare ;

IN : Revue des questions historiques, Année 38, vol.75 (nouv. série, vol.31) (Paris janv.-avril 1904) pp.74-112.

A useful and complete study.

DOSSAT, Y. : L’évolution des rituels cathares ;

IN : Revue de synthèse, vol.64 (nouv. série, vol.23) (Paris juillet-déc.1948) synthèse historique, pp.27-30.

A reminder about the differences between Cathar practices at different periods.

THOUZELLIER, Christine : Un traité cathare inédit du début du XIIIe siècle, d’après le « Liber contra Manichaeos » de Durand de Huesca (Bibliothèque de la Revue d’Histoire Ecclésiastique, no.37) (Louvain 1961).

The Latin text, with a full French introduction on its content and background.  There are also digressions on contacts with Bosnia, and on the supposed anti-pope (with bibliography). 

DUVERNOY, J. : Un traité cathare du début du XIIIe siècle ;

IN : Cahiers d’études cathares, Année 13, sér.2, no.13 (Arques, Aude 1962) pp.22-54.

A French translation of the previous text, with an introduction.

DUVERNOY, Jean : L’Histoire des Cathares (Toulouse 1979).

He relates the main events in Bogomil and Cathar history by geographical area from Bulgaria to Catalonia (with maps and illustrations).

BRENON, Anne : Le vrai visage du Catharisme (Portet-sur-Garonne 1990).

Concentrating on the Languedoc, she emphasises the continuity between Catharism and earlier heretical movements (with bibliography and maps, but no references).

LAMBERT, Malcolm : The Cathars (Oxford 1998).

A detailed study of all the evidence for dualist heresy in Roman Catholic lands from the appearance of Cathars in the Rhineland to the end of the Bosnian church: another tour de force from this historian.

HAMILTON, Bernard : The Cathars and Christian Perfection;

IN : BILLER P. & DOBSON, B. (ed.): The Medieval Church: Universities, Heresy and the Religious Life: Essays in honour of GORDON LEFF (Woodbridge, Suffolk 1999) pp.5-23.

This is an attempt to understand Cathar spirituality; but inevitably there is more information (because more evidence) about doctrine than about prayer.

BARBER, Malcolm : The Cathars: dualist heretics in Languedoc in the High Middle Ages (Harlow, Essex 2000).

He tells the story from its Bogomil origins to the Autier revival (with maps and bibliography).


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